Lawrence, Peg. “Access When and Where They Want It: Using EZproxy to Serve Our Remote Users.” Computers in Libraries 29, no. 1 (Jan 2009): 41-43.
Peg Lawrence, systems librarian at Minnesota State University-Mankato (MSUM), argues that libraries have a responsibility to provide distance users with easy access to electronic resources. She details the problems her library initially faced with complicated instructions for users on its website and many staff hours spent troubleshooting user access problems. After her 2004 experience taking an online course from another university that employed the EZproxy system for remote access to its resources, she worked with her campus ITS department to set up the EZproxy system at MSUM and coupled it with LibData to allow simple input and updates of a list of library databases and database descriptions. Librarians have worked with faculty using the Desire2Learn course management system to provide persistent links to articles and other course resources. The library maintains a remote access page online with instructions for resolving user connection problems. Lawrence views EZproxy as the best option for her library and highly recommends it to other libraries. She notes that EZproxy logs can be analyzed with tools such as 123 Log Analyzer to provide libraries with detailed data about the number and locations of users, the most popular electronic resources, and the busiest time periods.  J. Wood.

Schutt, M.A., B. Hightower. “Enhancing RN-to-BSN students’ information literacy skills through the use of instructional technology.” The Journal of Nursing Education 48, no. 2 (February 2009): 101-5.
Collaborative efforts between course faculty and the library instruction coordinator at Auburn University Montgomery led to the design of a Horizon Wimba Live Classroom library database instructional module for the development of basic searching techniques for 30 nontraditional students in the Computers in Nursing course in their RN-to-BSN Educational Advancement for Registered Nurses (EARN) program.  Students entered the program with an average of five years of nursing experience and most commuted from outside a 60 mile radius, necessitating courses heavily augmented with WebCT and Blackboard online course management systems and computer-based assignments. In addition to learning CINAHL Plus, students were introduced to Academic Search Premier, accessible through Alabama Virtual Library at their public libraries, as they would lose access to CINAHL upon graduation. Alabama Virtual Library offers Alabama residents free access to a selection of health sciences and multidisciplinary databases at no charge. Horizon Wimba Live Classroom enabled the librarian to go beyond the single traditional library instruction session. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive in response to a follow-up teaching assessment survey. The librarian recognized that the learning process had been mutual and gained insight into students’ thought processes as they approached database searches.  H. Gover

Solis, Jacqueline and Ellen M. Hampton. “Promoting a comprehensive view of library resources in a course management system.” New Library World 110, no. 1/2(2009): 81-91.
Early Course Management Software (CMS) offered no opportunity for accessing library resources in the electronic classroom beyond a link to the library’s home page. In 2006 librarians at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, with the involvement of teaching faculty, began to create course specific web pages that linked library resources directly with course assignments. These pages are accessible in the classroom through the institution’s CMS platform. In the past several years librarians have continued to create course specific pages and subject pages. These course specific and subject web pages have been useful in making the library easier and more relevant for students to use. While web stats show usage rates and anecdotal evidence has demonstrated the project to be successful, the librarians are interested in gaining better quantifiable assessments and incorporating Web 2.0 technology in the future.  M. Powers

Tao, D., P. McCarthy, M. Krieger, and A.Webb. “The Mobile Reference Service: a case study of an onsite reference service program at the school of public health.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 97, no. 1 (January 2009): 34-40.
The Medical Center Library at Saint Louis University implemented the Mobile Reference Service to deliver reference services at the university’s School of Public Health, which is located further from the library than any other program on the main campus. The service involved staffing an area in the student organization’s office for two-hours per week. Librarians took several steps to notify students and faculty about the service and public health users were allowed to sign-up in advance for appointments. The Mobile Reference Service recorded 57 reference transactions over a 25 week period. The authors emphasize that the program increased reference interactions with faculty and students in the School of Public Health and resulted in a stronger relationship between the school and the library. The authors list technical support at a distance, service promotion, and maintaining relationships with users as challenges to developing and maintaining a successful program.  M. Sylvain

Tripathi, Manorama, V.K.J. Jeevan. “Quality Assurance in Distance Learning Libraries.” Quality Assurance in Education: An International Perspective 17, no. 1 (2009): 45-60.
The authors contend that the Open Distance Learning (ODL) System must provide access to library services and resources for student success. After discussing the definition and meaning of “quality assurance,” the authors examine the necessity for quality assurance when it comes to ODL. The paper includes a review of the literature on the topic and suggestions for library services based on recommendations of library and educational organizations.  A comparison of ODL library services at 3 institutions: Hong Kong Open University, UK Open University, and Canada’s Athabasca University is given.  M. Powers


Anderson R.P., S.P. Wilson, F. Yeh, B. Phillips and M.B. Livingston. “Topics and features of academic medical library tutorials.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 27, no. 4 (Winter 2008): 406-18.
In February and March of 2008, a team of librarians at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library surveyed 126 academic medical library web sites to determine the status of available online tutorials compared to the year before.  Variations and developments in tutorial design and subject matter were measured.  The team’s findings indicate that medical libraries are providing more tutorials on database searching, catalog usage, and accessing e-journals.  These tutorials are both created internally (most commonly via HTML editors) and externally by vendors.  The tutorials that were most commonly linked to from library web pages were the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed tutorial and Thomson Scientific’s Web of Science tutorial.  K. Pickett

Arif, M. and K. Mahmood. “Off-Campus Postgraduate Students’ Perceptions About Distance Library Support Services: A Case Study of Allama Iqbal Open University Libraries Network.” Journal of Library Administration 48, no. 3/4 (October 2008): 249-263.
Using a mailed questionnaire, 250 randomly selected students from all across Pakistan’s 34 regional campuses and main campus of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) were polled to “assess distance learning students’ perceptions about location and physical set up of libraries, collections, resources, and services rendered.”  AIOU, established in 1974, has a hierarchical library system with the central library at the main campus.  Regardless of campus, only faculty and employees of the university possess borrowing rights.  Students and tutors may use library material for reference or make photocopies.  This study was undertaken to find out how services to distance education students could be improved, and the survey results indicated there were many areas of user dissatisfaction.  In summing up, the authors urge eight measures to improve distance library services be immediately taken.  P. Johnson

Behr, M. “Streamlining Document Delivery and Interlibrary Loan Services for Distance Learners: Survey and Case Study.” Journal of Interlibrary Loan, Document Delivery & Electronic Reserves 18, no. 2 (March 2008): 129-139. 
The off-campus services librarian at Western Michigan University conducted a survey to explore practices and procedures by which academic libraries deliver materials to distance learners. It was found that most universities use some type of web-based application, such as Ariel, OCLC, or ILLiad to facilitate the process of document delivery and interlibrary loan. MWU also presented a case study based upon the survey results and it was revealed that the WMU Library’s document delivery and interlibrary loan procedures are comparable to those of the 95 college, university, and community college libraries responding to the survey. WMU distance learners use ILLiad and/or SFX linking software to determine online availability through the library’s databases and to initiate requests for materials not readily available online through the library’s electronic resources.  Advantages for off-campus students using ILLiad for obtaining library materials are listed.  M. Thomas

Behr, M., and J. Hayward. “Do Off-Campus Students Still Use Document Delivery? Current Trends.” Journal of Library Administration 48, no. 3/4 (October 2008): 277-293.
A case study is presented in which a concrete course model is used in an online continuing education program for primary and secondary school teachers in Greece.  The question of “In what degree does the model implementation relate to successful course results?” is answered through questionnaires and interviews. The authors found that such a model can lead to success in an online, continuing education environment if the model adheres to fundamental theories of education.  K. Pickett

Chifwepa, V. “Providing Information Communication Technology-Based Support to Distance Education Students: A Case Study of the University of Zambia.” African Journal of Library, Archives & Information Science 18, no. 1 (April 2008): 51-65.
The University of Zambia has a long history of providing distance education. With print materials being the major format of course materials there has been a strong reliance on the postal service to deliver materials and foster communication between student and teacher. Problems with reliance on the postal service, human resources and financial problems, and a growing need to provide support to distance education students lead the University to explore Information and Computer Technologies (ICT). The author discusses survey results assessing student attitude toward utilization of ICTs and ICT accessibility and the relationship between accessibility and perceived value.  M. Powers

Dempsey, J. V., S. F. Fisher, D. E. Wright, and E. K. Anderton. “Training and Support, Obstacles, and Library Impacts on Elearning Activities.” College Student Journal 42, no. 2 (2008): 630-36.
Faculty and students from one American, mid-size, public university were surveyed regarding the training and support, challenges, and online implementation available to them for the use of technology. Those surveyed represented three user groups: faculty and students using technology as an enhancement for courses, those using technology for entirely online courses, and those in traditional, face-to-face courses. Faculty indicated that they are most likely to rely on peers for help with course design and creation. Of note to library professionals is the fact that the researchers found that “faculty teaching traditional and web-enhanced courses used electronic library resources considerably more than those teaching fully online courses.”  N. Marshall

Dow, Elizabeth. “Successful Inter-institutional Resource Sharing in a Niche Educational Market: Formal Collaboration without a Contract.” Innovations in Higher Education 33 (2008): 169-179.
In this article, special emphasis is placed on the administrative configuration of a distance learning arrangement established among five universities providing shared resources to students enrolled in an archives education program. Resources, advanced courses, and faculty were pooled among five universities in support of distance students enrolled in an archives education program. A representative Advisory Board was established to set forth policies and to coordinate procedures among the institutions. The SAEC (Southeast Archives Education Collaborative) deliberated over course offerings, class size, faculty issues, and the marketing of the archives program. The individual universities retained their identities, yet drew upon their strengths to establish a successful collaborative program.  M. Thomas

Dow, M. “Implications of Social Presence for Online Learning: A Case Study of MLS Students.” Journal of Education for Library & Information Science 49, no. 4 (Fall 2008): 231-242.
This case study explores the need for a social presence while learning online.  The study was conducted between 2002 and 2003 at the Emporia State University School of Library and Information Management.  The results of the study show that students are often frustrated by the lack of socialization in online learning.  Students are not able to interact with each other in the same way as in face to face learning.  Online instructors may want to incorporate a social aspect into the class to compensate for this.  S. Brown

Grays, L., D. Del Bosque and K. Costello. “Building a Better M.I.C.E. Trap: Using Virtual Focus Groups to Assess Subject Guides for Distance Education Students.” Journal of Library Administration 48, no. 3/4 (October 2008): 431-453.
To obtain feedback about the effectiveness of online subject guides, the authors conducted virtual focus groups with distance students. The authors discuss the importance of subject guides, or pathfinders, in providing information to students. Little has been done to determine if these guides are actually useful, however. A virtual focus group methodology was chosen as a way to gather feedback from distance learners enrolled in online hospitality courses, specifically researching the topic area known as M.I.C.E. (meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions), from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Because the data gathered from the virtual focus group sessions is very specific to one library, they are not presented in the article. Instead, the authors provide a brief discussion of the variables that need to be considered when using this research method.  N. Marshall

Gunal, Serkan. “Automated Categorization Scheme for Digital Libraries in Distance Learning: A Pattern Recognition Approach.” Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education 9 (Oct 2008): 30-38.
Dr. Gunal of Anadolu University in Turkey argues that given the large size and multi-format nature of digital libraries useful for distance learning, a categorization scheme based on a pattern recognition approach can and should be employed to enable users to distinguish between the many types of instructional materials available. Since digital library research materials in any format can be described with text, the pattern recognition problem he perceives becomes a text recognition and categorization problem. Gunal uses a Reuters news bulletin dataset to demonstrate how keyword frequencies can be extracted from 400 texts in each of six different subject categories.  After eliminating irrelevant words and keywords common to two or more subjects, he identifies the most frequent keywords for each subject, then applies the Support Vector machine (SVM) pattern classifier, and, finally, tests the results against 100 additional subject articles with a 90 percent accurate subject recognition/categorization rate. He concludes that this automated pattern recognition approach can be used successfully to identify different categories of materials in large digital libraries.  J. Wood

King, S., Kaplan, R. and K. MacDonald. “Teaching PubMed in Cyberspace: The Development of a Self-Learning Package.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 27, no. 3 (Fall 2008): 272-283.
Librarians at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences procured a NLM grant to create a series of online learning modules intended to instruct nurse practitioners at the College’s branch facilities in rural New Hampshire.  The librarians developed the content for a flexible, self-paced “virtual tutor” component, while the instructional designer handled the technical aspects of the project using Tegrity software. An evaluation of the program emphasizes the need for planning, cost containment, regular updates, and assessment.  M. Thomas

Koltay, Tibor and Istvan Boda. “Digital library issues in Hungarian LIS curricula: Examples from three libraryschools.” Library Review 57, no. 6 (2008): 430-441.
This article compares digital library education (DLE) in Hungary to the results of various international surveys.  The authors focused on three schools of Library and Information Science in Hungary as examples; the surveys used in the study were focused on the United States of America, Slovenia, and the United Kingdom.  The Hungarian programs meet the standards DLE programs in those three countries.  However, with the changes in the digital world, it is important to continue to improve and update the program constantly.  S. Brown

Littlejohn, Allison, Isobel Falconer and Lou Mcgill.  “Characterizing Effective eLearning Resources.”  Computers & Education 50, no 3 (2008): 757-771.
The authors have compiled a study of digital learning resources which is based upon a report commissioned by the UK Joint Information Systems Committees as part of a wider study.  This article examines primarily digital resources in terms of teacher and student discovery, application, and ultimate use.  Resources are characterized by type of representation of knowledge, format, and medium and how these characterizations influence user selection.  Additional scrutiny is applied to the ways in which learning resources are utilized along with how they are adapted or combined into new forms appropriate to varying contexts.  Also addressed are the 12 key characteristics of resources most likely to have high usability and the requirements of these resources which make them most likely to be adopted for use by learning communities.  J. Wilson

Locatis C. A. Vega, M. Bhagwat, W.L. Liu and J. Conde. “A virtual computer lab for distance biomedical technology education.” BMC Medical Education 8 (2008): 12.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides 2.5 hour mini-courses in complex bioinformatics procedures to some 4,000 students per year in computer labs at the National Institutes of Health and other locations. To reach more students in the U.S. and abroad, NCBI explored methods for establishing a virtual computer lab offering distance students synchronous interaction with instructors via bi-directional videoconferencing as well as application sharing software to permit instructors to access student desktops from a distance and provide individual assistance. This article summarizes the technical aspects of setting up a virtual computer lab and reports on two pilot implementations, NCBI courses offered in virtual labs at the University of Puerto Rico and at the University of Michigan Medical School. In both cases, student evaluations were exceptionally positive and enthusiastic. The authors caution that implementation of a virtual computer lab requires a support person at the remote facility to install client and server software, create access scripts, overcome security concerns about the VNC desktop sharing software and monitor all computers during class sessions. Still, virtual computer labs have the potential to improve and expand distance learning, especially when detailed course content changes rapidly and real time interaction between instructor and students is important.  J. Wood

Secker, Jane. “The Continuing Adventures of LASSIE.” ALISS Quarterly 3, no. 2 (January 2008): 9-12. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/4157
This brief article outlines the progress of LASSIE (Libraries and Social Software in Education), sponsored by the LSE’s (London School of Economics) Centre for Learning Technology and the Institute of Education. The LASSIE project examines the use of social networking applications to enhance the library experience of distance learners. The project team members realize that many librarians are enthusiastic web 2.0 users, alluding to five case studies of academic libraries that utilize of RSS, social bookmarking, blogs, and other types of user generated content to disseminate information and raise awareness of library services and resources.  M. Thomas

Secker, Jane and Lloyd, Caroline.  “Libraries, Social Software and Distance Learners:  The Adventures of LASSIE.”  Health Information on the Internet  62 (April 2008): 6-8.
This short article sheds light on how some groups (such as LASSIE:  Libraries and Social Software in Education) have begun studying the Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 trends.  Although a bit dated (as it states that “most people have heard of blogs, and a few might have experimented with wikis or joined the social networking site, Facebook”), this article gives a short and concise definition of the term Library 2.0 and explains how the web can become more participatory for users.  Although the article was written as “an overview of how social software might enhance distance learners’ experience of libraries,” the exploration into the 2.0 world is valuable for all learners, not just those at a distance.  R. Newhouse

Virkus, Sirje. “Use of Web 2.0 Technologies in LIS Education: Experiences at Tallinn University, Estonia.” Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems 42, no. 3 (2008): 262-74.
The author begins the article with an overview and discussion of Web 2.0 technologies in educational settings. Use of Web 2.0 technologies by the Institute of Information Studies of Tallinn University, Estonia is then discussed in-depth. The author observes that few European Library and Information Science educators are using available technologies to the extent possible, and encourages LIS faculty members to take advantage of new technology with consideration for the learning preferences of students and appropriate pedagogical approaches.  N. Marshall

Wales, Tim and Penny Robertson. “Captivating Open University Students with Online Literature Search Tutorials Created Using Screen Capture Software.” Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems 42, no. 4 (2008): 365-381.
The article is a case study describing the research, trials and preparation involved in production of self-guided, course-specific online tutorials for distance-learning students at the United Kingdom’s Open University, which is the largest university in the UK.  The authors’ literature review includes a thorough examination of an array of appropriate articles covering best practices in creating and promoting information literacy material in online environments.  Evaluation and assessment of various screen capture programs is included.   The authors have incorporated extensively detailed background information and discussion of each phase within the creation and review of the pilot and final tutorials.  J. Wilson


Bednarkek-Michalska, Bozena and Anna Wolodko. “E-learning model for Polish libraries: BIBWEB.” The Electronic Library 25, no. 1 (2007): 80-89.
This article describes the e-learning BIBWEB program for librarians in Poland.  This program was originally implemented in Germany for librarians, regardless of the type of library they work for.  The Bertelsmann Foundation developed a Polish version of BIBWEB with the help of the Warsaw University Library and the Polish Librarians Association.  This initiative was designed to improve the abilities of Polish librarians by educating them on modern information technologies.  So far, the project has been deemed a success with 1,735 users having completed the course from May 2003 to October 2005.  S. Brown

Block, J. “Library Anxiety and the Distance Learning Graduate Student: A Case Study of Eastern Michigan University.” MLA Forum 5, no. 3 (June 2007): 6-6.
The current trend toward adult distance education and continuing education in libraries has shown that students and professionals who return to school after a period of absence are unfamiliar with, have difficulty using, and may be intimidated by new information technologies.  Therefore, these students have unique needs for technology training and must learn new skills if they are to be successful.  Students who once relied on paper indexes and card catalogs must adapt to using electronic catalogs and databases.  Librarians at Eastern Michigan University (EMU) found success with succinct, step-by-step instructions designed specifically for this student population in collaboration with appropriate faculty.  K. Pickett

Childs G.M.“Technology. Database instruction from a distance.” MLA News 393, no. 18 (Feb 2007).
Gary M. Childs highlights and recommends software that could be used to provide database instruction to distance students.  Features of both virtual classroom software (Centra and Horizon Wimba) and screen/image capture software (IrfanView and SnagIt) are compared and discussed.  The author states that the use of such software can provide more effective online tutorials for distance-learning students.  K. Pickett

Ellis, Robert A., Nerida Jarkey, Mary Jane Mahoney, Mary Peat and Stephen Sheely. “Managing quality improvement of eLearning in a large, campus-based university.” Quality Assurance in Education 15, no. 1 (2007): 9-23.
The complexities of integrating eLearning into a traditional curriculum are explored, first by examining the key stages of course development and teaching process, and then by discussing in particular the University of Sydney’s methods for managing and assessing its strategic eLearning projects.  This predominately campus-based university has taken an allocation of hours approach versus dollar budgeting (e.g., consultants – departing knowledge capital) in determining support for eLearning projects across its 17 faculties.  Trialling and a great deal of evaluative data collection ensure ongoing quality improvement.  Many of the principles University of Sydney has set up for developing its eLearning projects will be transferable to other large, campus-based institutions.  P. Johnson

Griffey, Jason. “PODCAST 1 2 3.” Library Journal 132, no. 11 (2007): 32-34.
Briefly describes the hardware and software options and design processes available for preparing instructional podcasts for academic libraries based on the experiences of a design team at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. A sidebar by Larisa Hart and Amy Landon also describes similar development at Ozarks Technical Community College, Springfield, MO. Podcasting automatically delivers content in audio or video format to patrons via an RSS feed, an XML file designed for syndication. RSS flexibility allows repackaging multimedia content in nearly unlimited ways. RSS has established itself through wide usage and implementation as the essential delivery mechanism for podcasts.  H. Gover

Hersh W.R. “The full spectrum of biomedical informatics education at Oregon Health & Science University.” Methods of Information in Medicine 46, no. 1 (2007): 80-3.
This descriptive article details Oregon Health & Science University’s (OHSU) biomedical informatics program and its curriculum. The university grants degrees ranging from the certificate level to a PhD. The university offers most of its courses and programs online and allows students to pursue both the Master of Science (MS) in Biomedical Informatics and the Master of Biomedical Informatics (MBI) through distance learning or on-campus. The author offers detailed information about the specific programs such as the required courses and explains OHSU’s “building block” approach. He also highlights a number of funding opportunities for students, including a National Library Medicine fellowship for librarians.  M. Sylvain

Hightower, B., C. Rawl, and M. Schutt. “Collaborations for Delivering the Library to Students Through Web CT.”  Reference Services Review 35, no. 4 (2007): 541-551.
Written from the collaborative perspectives of Library Instruction Coordinator, Interim Assistant CIO for Information Technology Services, and Instructor in the School of Nursing, the authors detail their experiences at Auburn University in Montgomery, Alabama as they created a library survey for distribution to teaching faculty who had WebCT shells on their campus server.  The idea for the survey came from the perceived need to educate faculty about the library’s services and resources and how to incorporate them into their WebCT materials.  The survey indicated that while most were willing to link to library resources, few actually did due to a lack of knowledge of the resources, how to link or who to ask.  The results emphasized the importance of the librarians becoming proactive in promoting placement of links to library services and resources within teaching faculty WebCT course modules.  J. Wilson

Hlapanis, G. and A. Dimitrakopolou. “A course model implemented in a teacher’s learning community context: issues of course assessment.” Behaviour & Information Technology 26, no. 2 (November 2007): 561-578.
A case study is presented in which a concrete course model is used in an online continuing education program for primary and secondary school teachers in Greece.  The question of “In what degree does the model implementation relate to successful course results?” is answered through questionnaires and interviews.  The authors found that such a model can lead to success in an online, continuing education environment if the model adheres to fundamental theories of education.  K. Pickett

Johnson, Megan, Louise Ochoa and Geraldine Purpur. “Virtually Usable: A Test of the Informatio Gardens.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 33, no. 5 (Sep 2007): 593-601.
Discusses the results of design stage usability testing of an AET Zone three-dimensional desktop virtual reality library, dubbed the Information Gardens, and designed by the Distance Learning Library Services team, to provide library use instruction to three graduate programs in the Reich College of Education Leadership and Educational Studies Program at Appalachian State University, Boone, NC. The target audience for the AET Zone was distance education students in the Instructional Technology, Higher Education and Library Science graduate school programs in the Reich College, who typically vary in age from their twenties to their fifties. Because of difficulties in testing distance students, on-campus test subjects who closely matched the demographics of the target audience were chosen. A unique feature of desktop virtual reality is its extensive use of metaphors to represent real world objects and functions. User efficiency is therefore directly dependent on the effectiveness of the metaphorical symbols. Testing revealed varying degrees of user efficiency based upon age and the effectiveness of the design and the metaphors used. A tool which was intended to provide orientation to real world library resources was itself found to benefit from orientation tours to help users and cut down on their frustration. Revisions were made at each stage of initial design testing and further testing and design revisions have since been ongoing.  H. Gover

Kanungo, N. “Use of the Internet in the scholarly communication of social scientists: a case study of IGNOU.” Annals of Library & Information Studies 54, no. 1 (March 2007): 1-1.
Social science faculty members from Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), an institution that offers its degree programs online, were surveyed regarding their use of the Internet for scholarly communication. Forty-six faculty members responded to the survey. Nearly all respondents reported using the Internet for e-mail, to access research-based information, and to browse the Internet, while a low percent of those surveyed use the Internet for discussion forums or lists and bulletin boards. Researchers surveyed find information on the Internet first through search engines and then by directly accessing known websites. Searching online databases was the third most used method to find information. Less than one quarter of respondents reported having participated in a training program for using the Internet. There was significant interest expressed in receiving training from a professional training agency rather than from training programs offered through the university. The article briefly addresses problems reported by faculty members in searching the Internet and dissatisfaction with the Internet.  N. Marshall

Kilmon, Carol and Mary Helen Fagan. “Course management software adoption: a diffusion of innovations perspective.” Campus-Wide Information Systems 24, no. 2 (2007): 134-144.
This case study examines a nursing program’s adoption of Course Management Software (CMS) and aims to answer two questions: “How do faculty describe the consequences of adopting a CMS?” and “How can the consequences of adopting a CMS be understood in terms of Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory?”  Rogers described the diffusion of innovation as “a process whereby an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system.”  The theory consists of three dimensions of consequence measured by the authors in their case study: desirable versus undesirable consequences, direct versus indirect consequences, and anticipated versus unanticipated consequences.  According to Rogers, “the undesirable, indirect and unanticipated consequences of an innovation usually go together, as do the desirable, direct and anticipated consequences.”  A methodology, discussion of findings, and analysis provided by the authors illustrate a positive view of CMS by faculty as well as overall consistency with Rogers’ theory, although a small number of consequences do unveil the inconsistency of “desirable, direct, and unanticipated.”  The authors call for more research on the classification of desirable versus undesirable consequences, on the student perspective of CMS use, and on how the support of faculty during the implementation phase of a CMS impacts its use.  T. C. Dean

Leong, Julia. “Marketing Electronic Resources to Distance Students: A Multipronged Approach.” Serials Librarian 53, no. 3 (2007): 77-94.
Recognizing students’ priority for electronically available articles, this paper advocates using multiple approaches for alerting students to the library’s electronic resources and advocating their use. The author highlights the benefits of a well-designed website and collaborating with faculty and lecturers by activities such as incorporating electronic resources into information literacy instruction and help guides. Also, standalone strategies are described, such as Project SelfHelp, a time-intensive program of sending links and instructions in response to individual requests, using student-friendly terminology to market resources in the library website, and advertising library resources via e-mail.  B. Fagerheim

Murphy, M., S. Franklin, and A. Raia. “Delivering Library Services to Users: A Case Study of the Sooner Xpress Service at the University of Oklahoma.” Journal of Access Services 5, no. 1/2 (January 2007): 349-356.
Many of the distance learning students who take classes through the University of Oklahoma’s Advanced Programs (AP) serve in the military overseas.   Previously, this presented a challenge to the University’s libraries in providing library materials to these students.  However, in 1995, the libraries and AP department agreed on an expansion of services offered to distance learning students, and the libraries chose to include local students as well. They called the new service “Sooner Xpress.” The authors provide a step-by-step approach of how “Sooner Xpress” grew and developed through the years.   They discuss problems and corrections made to their work flow and specifically focus on methods for handling incoming requests, returnables and non-returnables, and request updates. “Sooner Xpress” is still not perfect, and possible solutions to the lingering glitches are offered.   The authors advise others who may want to implement such a program to start small and label the new service as a “trial.”  “Sooner Xpress” can serve as a model for other libraries –  the service has gone from hundreds to thousands of requests per year.  T. C. Dean

Osman, G. and S. Herring, S. “Interaction, facilitation, and deep learning in cross-cultural chat: A case study.” Internet & Higher Education 10, no. 2 (April 2007): 125-141.
This article discusses a case study of online instruction between four adult learners in Azerbaijan and their two facilitators in the U.S.. The study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of chat for deep learning in cross-cultural distance certification programs. On the one hand, chat instruction is seen as an important learning tool because it increases interaction, instills a sense of community online, and encourages negotiation of meaning, which is necessary for deep and critical learning. On the other hand, chat instruction is perceived as seldom leading to successful negotiation of meaning due to technical difficulties, students’ lack of typing skills to participate, chats being hard to follow, cultural differences, and difficulty with seeing the relationships between different chat messages. The authors examine the goals of the study, research questions, methodology, hypotheses and findings. The findings lend empirical support to other studies that suggest chat instruction may potentially support deep learning; but it may be better not to rely on chat as the primary medium of interaction. Included are three appendices of coding schemes and examples.  S. Cisse

Otte, George. “New questions for online learning, and new answers: the case of the CUNY Online Baccalaureate.” On the Horizon 15, no. 3 (2007): 169-176.
Otte, then the academic director of the City University of New York, presents a compelling case for online instruction being a critical means for improving U.S. graduation rates.  He cites the statistic that while the U.S. is fifth in the world for the proportion of the population going to college, it ranks seventeenth in terms of those who actually obtain a degree.  CUNY surveyed students who left in good standing after completing 30 credits and found that academics were not the problem, but rather the demands of life (child care, full time employment, etc.).  Online education allows a student to fit school back into that busy life, and CUNY’s online Baccalaureate was designed for just such a students.  What was once called “distance education” has now “gone local.”   The author outlines key questions along the way to developing online programs and discusses some lessons learned.  P. Johnson

Robinson, Lyn and Audrone Glosiene.  “Continuing Professional Development for Library and Information Science: Case Study of a Network of Training Centres.”  Aslib Proceedings 59, no. 4/5 (2007): 462-474.
The authors have written a case study covering professional development opportunities for library information workers in countries within Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia as provided by the Training Centre Network initiative.  The national centres were set up and funded by the Open Society Initiative (OSI).  The history of OSI and its development of library programs and initiatives are supplied.  The end of OSI funding saw the continuation of the training network on a self-sustaining basis.  The discussion and timeline examine the network’s evolution into 23 national training centres and include a detailed look at continued professional development lessons learned (best practices) from the training centers’ network operations.  J. Wilson

Searing, S. “Integrating Assessment into Recurring Information Literacy Instruction: A Case Study from LIS Education.” Public Services Quarterly 3, no. 1/2 (January 2007): 191-220.
A case study reporting on a simple, cyclical process to assess information literacy instruction in the opening orientation course of LEEP, the hybrid distance education option of the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The experience suggests that even small assessment efforts can make a meaningful difference in the acceptance of information literacy as a critical component of the curriculum. By sharing assessment results, librarians generate good will between the library and the academic program. By demonstrating an enthusiasm for change and a shared commitment to student learning, librarians become partners in fulfilling a school or department’s instructional mission. Describes the development, use, and results of a short paper questionnaire, in the first four years of LEEP, which led to revisions in the assessment instrument and to incremental improvements in the content and organization of the information literacy sessions. Findings suggest that both LEEP and on-campus students might appreciate learning the basics of literature searching in LIS from a web-based tutorial, particularly one that includes a quiz feature allowing knowledgeable students to test out, and leaving the librarian free in instructional sessions to cover more advanced content.  H. Gover

Secker, J. and Price, G.  “Libraries, Social Software and Distance Learners:  Blog It, Tag It, Share It!”  New Review of Information Networking, 13.1 (May 2007): 39-52.
A bit dated already, this paper describes how LASSIE (Libraries and Social Software in Education), launched as a small scale project in March 2007, explores how “social software might enhance the use of library services by distance learners.”  An extensive literature review was done, which highlighted the fact that many libraries grapple with social software and how to explore Web 2.0 technologies in their libraries.  The article gives several examples of how social software is being used in libraries, but certainly developments in 2010 have gone far beyond the basics explored in this article.  Although the article is dated, it does include interesting information on how to better support distance learners in the library and information about the library as a “social space.”  R. Newhouse

Stickler, U., and R. Hampel. “Designing online tutor training for language courses: a case study.” Open Learning 22, no. 1 (February 2007): 75-85.
This case study focused on the use of online training for foreign language tutors at the Open University in the United Kingdom.  The authors discovered that tutors needed more than just training in the technical use of the online classroom.  Tutors also had to adapt to the differences of teaching online instead of in a traditional classroom setting.  Tutors became more comfortable with the online tool after teaching with it for a year.  The authors also provide a training program outline for tutors in table 3.  S. Brown

Talbot, Jon. “Delivering distance education for modern government: the F4Gov programme.” Education + Training 49, no. 3 (2007): 250-260.
In 1998 the University of Chester developed a Work Based and Integrative Studies (WBIS) programme.  WBIS is “a pre-validated degree framework designed to facilitate learning for people in the workplace and provide academic credit for it.”  A few years later, in 2002, the British Civil Service implemented a foundation degree programme for its employees.   Foundation degrees are more vocational than typical university degrees and are the equivalent to the first two years of a three year degree.  The Civil Service approached the University of Chester in hopes of using the WBIS programme as a framework for the new foundation degree requirements.  This partnership resulted in the creation of the F4Gov programme, or Foundation for Government programme.  It provides members of the British Civil Service with an affordable, accredited, distance foundation degree through the use of a virtual learning environment (VLE).   The author discusses assessment of the programme, as well as management, recruitment, and delivery of it, and offers additional ideas for research in this area.  T. C. Dean

Wyss, Paul Alan. “Solving the Problem of Promoting Distance Library Services.” College Student Journal 41, no. 4 (Dec 2007): 747-754.
Approaching the issue of promoting library services to distance education faculty, a new distance education librarian employed techniques from a variety of business methodologies, including systems thinking, process mapping, team learning, and diffusion of information practices. The author describes how systems thinking guided changes to his promotion efforts and prompted the addition of more personalized methods of promoting library services. The author explains how Process Mapping helped to outline ways that library services could be diffused among many players, and Team Learning Initiatives were used to bring in other librarians to assist in the promotion of distance library services.  B. Fagerheim


Appleton, Leo. “Perceptions of electronic library resources in further education.” The Electronic Library 24, no. 5 (2006): 619-634.
The further education (FE) sector in the United Kingdom offers adult education opportunities as well as academic and vocational instruction for 16-19 year old students.  From February to May of 2005, a case study was carried out to attempt to qualitatively measure the perceptions of electronic library resources (ELR) among FE instructors and students.  Both personal interviews and discussion groups were utilized to gauge initial awareness, usage patterns, and perceived benefits of ELR in this unique academic environment.  K. Pickett

Beach, Regina and Miqueas Dial. “Building a Collection Development CMS on a Shoe-String.”  Library Hi Tech 24, no. 1 (2006): 115-125.
In this article the authors describe the need for and creation of their specialized content management system (CMS) for collection development at Texas A&M University-Kingsville in South Texas.  The impetus for this home-grown CMS grew from an accrediting agency rating which stated a deficiency in library services and collections for distance education students at the associated University System Center in San Antonio and by the need to have teaching faculty take a more active role in building library collections by offering the convenience of an online system.  There is a long-term goal of integrating the CMS with course management software, such as WebCT or Blackboard.  The article states another future goal of having the requestor’s bibliographic data entry into the library’s catalog system be the sole entry needed in the process.  Workflow changes are illustrated and explained along with adjustments made by the technical services department.  The prototype for the CMS was developed in Microsoft Access.  The authors expect future changes based upon user feedback and look forward to full integration of the library acquisitions process with all current and future library systems.  J. Wilson

Busayao, Isaac Oluwadare. “Accessibility and use of library resources by part-time students a case study of the Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.” Library Review 55, no. 2 (2006): 148-156.
Busayao, an experienced lecturer for the use of the library course at the Ado-Ekiti Federal Polytechnic library, developed a 20 item questionnaire to evaluate part-time student awareness of library resources and use of this academic library. His sample population included 210 students enrolled in the I, II and III sessions of the Higher National Diploma (HND) program. Busayao analyzed 190 completed questionnaires and reports his results in four tables summarizing responses pertaining to location of the library, library materials, student use of the library, and the effect of the library course on students, respectively. Part-time students attend lectures on a satellite campus located 12km from the main campus library. Not surprisingly, more than 82 percent of the students claimed that the library was hard to reach, almost 70 percent suggested library hours were not adequate, and more than 52 percent used the library only when preparing for an exam. More than half of students surveyed complained about the lack of photocopying services and the lack of telephone access to library departments. Students strongly recommended construction of a new library on the satellite campus.  Slightly more than half of the students felt that the use of the library course helped them be better users of the library.  Busayao’s research builds on the few existing studies of library use by part-time students in Africa.  J. Wood

Carroll-Barefield A. “Assessing the administrative support needs (library and technical) of allied health students enrolled in distance education program.” Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences & Practice 4, no. 3 (Jul 2006).
The author reports the results of a survey of 60 undergraduate and graduate allied health students enrolled in distance education programs and/or courses in Health Information Management, Medical Technology, Radiological Sciences, and Occupational Therapy at an unnamed U. S. public health sciences research university. Forty-five students responded to the survey’s close-ended questions and two open-ended questions designed to determine if the university’s library and technical support met their needs. Library support included help from the distance education librarian and online tutorials via WebCT while technical support consisted of a general technical orientation, WebCT orientation, and email/phone support. Students generally expressed satisfaction with both library and technical support. Narrative comments, however, reveal students would prefer a more detailed technology orientation, seek greater access to e-journals, and were unaware of some library resources and of the university email system.  J. Wood

deLeng, Bas A., Dolmans, Diana H. J. M., Muijtjens, Arno M. M., Van Der Vleuten, Cees P.M. “Student Perceptions of a Virtual Learning Environment for a Problem-Based Learning Undergraduate Medical Curriculum.” Medical Education 40 (2006): 568-575.
VLEs (Virtual Learning Environments), such as Blackboard are outfitted to stimulate communication, promote discussion, and to facilitate the exchange of ideas among students enrolled in distance education programs.  The authors surveyed first and second year medical students on their perceptions of the effects of VLE discussion groups on group communication. Stimulation of interaction was measured by a survey divided into three phases (preliminary, self-study, and reporting phases) of problem based learning. The most positive results appeared in the preliminary phase, where face-to-face interaction occurred. Computer-assisted communication was perceived to be the least beneficial in the self-study phases. Results of the survey and some student remarks are included.  M. Thomas

Gilreath, Charles L.  “Library Development for Texas A&M at Qatar:  Maximum Access/Minimum Holdings.”  Collection Building 25, no. 2 (2006), 52-55.
This case study examines the challenges of developing a branch library of Texas A&M in Education City in Qatar.  According to author Charles Gilreath, “the Education City initiative allows the Qatari government to provide access to American style education” and to expand opportunities for higher education to both male and female students.  Gilreath discusses how information resources were selected, how various institutions in Education City function with autonomous collections, how electronic research tools are delivered, and how opening day collections functioned.  Several useful graphs and charts are available and Gilreath includes interesting statistics about how much the TAMUQ collections are utilized and what opportunities for growth lie ahead.  R. Newhouse

Gu, Fang. “The role of library media services in the University Distance and Distributed Education.” Library Management 27, no. 6/7 (2006): 379-389.
The California State University, Sacramento has a well established Distance and Distributed Education (DDE) program. The program involves the participation and collaboration of several departments in addition to off-campus organizations. The author describes this collaborative effort, while emphasizing the Library Media Center’s (LMC) operations and functions. The LMC is heavily involved in supporting a significant number of video-based courses and the author discusses how the LMC support has evolved to reflect changes in technology as well as teaching and learning needs.  M. Sylvain

Haynes, A., and S. Mannan. “Indiana’s Statewide Distance Education Library Services Task Force: Past, Present, and Future.” Journal of Library Administration 45, no. 1/2 (November 2006): 203-213.
This article describes the efforts of Indiana’s academic libraries to create a consortium to address the delivery of library services to distance education students throughout Indiana state educational institutions from 1967- present. The overall goal was to bring educational opportunities to Indiana citizens through a variety of technologies to pursue distance education and to support distance education throughout Indiana State. The authors describe the formation of committees and task forces to carry out goals of the various consortia. Working through several manifestations of the consortium Library Services Task Force, the first two generations laid the foundation for further work. The third iteration is currently working to fulfill goals and considering new initiatives.  S. Cisse

Ledwell, Elizabeth, Mary-Anne Andrusyszyn and Caroll Iwasiw, “Nursing Students’ Empowerment in Distance Education: Testing Kanter’s Theory.” Journal of Distance Education 21, no. 2 (2006): 78-95.
The authors perform a qualitative study of seven RNs completing a baccalaureate degree through distance education at Canadian Universities by conducting phone interviews and doing a content analysis of the transcripts.  R. M. Kanter’s Theory of Structural Power in Organizations was found to be helpful in understanding the empowerment structures in distance education courses.  Examples of empowering elements include instructor feedback, library access and family and employer support.  Not contained within Kanter’s theory but discovered through the content analysis, were that self-direction and perseverance are also key to distance education learning.  This prompts the observation that “… what is needed is a distance education theory that describes how autonomy and responsibility interact with support and guidance to create an empowering learning experience in which students achieve success.”  P. Johnson

Locatis Craig, Cynthia Gaines, Wei-Li Liu, Michael Gill, John Carney, Jaimela Foster, Valerie McCall and Michelle Woods. “A blended training approach using videoconferencing for distance education.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 94, no. 4 (Oct 2006): 464-8.
A blended approach to distance instruction, employing a series of videoconferences to a classroom and follow up guides with archived presentations is presented in this article. The program was initiated by the National Library of Medicine with the goal of reaching minority high school students. A videoconference presentation on a topic was followed-up by a presentation focusing on online information sources, and the logistics and methodology of this approach is explained. The authors cover the evaluation methods and their assessment of the program’s overall value, teaching methods, technology, and logistics and cost.  B. Fagerheim

Mason, Marilyn Gell, Sarah Chesemore and Rachel Van Noord. “E-Learning’s Next Wave: Collaborating on Course Development Will Help Librarians Make Online Learning All It Can Be.” Library Journal 131, no. 19 (Nov 2006): 40-44.
This article describes some of the results from a survey commissioned by WebJunction in 2005.  It also describes the different types of e-learning, as well as the benefits and problems with using an e-learning program.  The article stresses the need for collaboration amongst librarians in order to create more effective courses and avoid redundancy.  It ends with a list of ways WebJunction will try to improve e-learning through collaboration.  S. Brown

McClelland, Robert J. and Nick Hawkins. “Perspectives on the use and development of a broad range of e-books inhigher education and their use in supporting virtual learning environments.” The Electronic Library 24, no. 1 (2006): 68-82.
The authors examine the role of electronic books in the higher education curriculum for students of the UK.  Four case studies spanning from 1990 to 2004 are outlined; each one looking at a different model of creating and incorporating electronic texts: outsourced with in-house benefits, completely outsourced, hybrid, and completely in-house. A questionnaire to determine student perception on the use of electronic books was administered to business students in the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 academic school year. The authors find that users of electronic text want it to written in scannable style and want the medium to retain some features of print.  M. Powers

Neves K and H. Bishawi. “Availability of electronic libraries in the health sciences in the Arabian Gulf region.” Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association 27, no. 4 (Fall 2006): 113-21.
This study reports the first survey of health libraries in all Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, a group established in 1981 and including United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, and Oman. Lacking an official list of GCC health libraries, Karen Neves of the UAE National Medical Library and Hakim Bishawi of Tawam Hospital in the UAE notified some 39 GCC health libraries that their 26 item questionnaire could be completed via email, fax, or online via Surveymonkey.com.  Neves and Bishawi received 20 valid responses, nearly all from hospital and academic libraries serving primarily or exclusively doctors and other health professionals. More that 90 percent of the libraries reported offering e-journals and 70 percent offer e-books. About half of the libraries provide remote access to online resources. Online OPACs are found in 60 percent of the libraries and ILL is well-established. Most libraries do individual and small group instruction only and 65 percent answer email reference questions. Few libraries offer services to nonhealth professionals. The authors are confident GCC libraries have recovered well from Gulf area conflict and will continue to expand their services.  J. Wood

Olapiriyakul, K. and J. Scher. “A guide to establishing hybrid learning courses: Employing information technology to create a new learning experience, and a case study.” Internet & Higher Education 9, no. 4 (October 2006): 287-301.
Developing a hybrid or blended learning university course, defined here as a course  including both face-to-face class time and distance learning via technology, requires first the appropriate technology infrastructure, then careful design, development, and implementation as well as regular evaluation and revision. In the fall 2004 semester, several instructors at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) developed pilot hybrid courses (50 percent online) and designed two studies to (1) assess course effectiveness and student satisfaction, and (2) evaluate learning styles of students who chose hybrid course sections versus traditional  or distance education sections of the same course. The 38 students surveyed greatly preferred hybrid learning to traditional classes. Student performance in hybrid and distance courses was comparable. The Felder and Solomon (1996) index of learning style completed by 31 students revealed learning styles for students in the three types of courses were not significantly different, but interesting patterns emerged for students  grouped by course performance level. The authors provide numerous suggestions for ensuring that hybrid courses are well-designed and successful.  J. Wood

Sacchanand C and V. Jaroenpuntaruk . “Development of a Web-based self-training package for information retrieval using the distance education approach.” Electronic Library 24, no. 4 (2006): 501-16.
The authors report on their creation of an independent learning module on information retrieval for distance learners. From the initial step of profiling the learners who will eventually use the information through evaluating the effectiveness of the module, each step in the process is discussed. The self-training package was designed for non-traditional aged, motivated students who need to develop their information literacy skills. Because the information is delivered to students online, it is accessible, flexible, and easy to use. Two types of focus groups were used to evaluate the program; one group consisted of instructional design experts, and the other was comprised of users. Feedback from the evaluators was used to enhance the training package.  N. Marshall

Schilling K., J. Wiecha, D. Polineni and S. Khalil. “An interactive web-based curriculum on evidence-basedmedicine: design and effectiveness.“ Family Medicine 38, no. 2 (February 2006): 126-32.
The Boston University Department of Family Medicine experimented with adding an online distance education curriculum component for selected third year medical students as part of their six week family medicine clerkship program. Students assigned to the intervention group (n=134) participated via Blackboard CourseInfo in web-based learning modules developed by academic health sciences reference librarians and designed to help students hone their  MEDLINE and Evidence Based Medicine(EBM) database information retrieval skills and learn to calculate the number need to treat (NNT) statistic . Control group students (n=104) did not receive the web-based training. Data gathered from a pre-clerkship survey, analysis of student MEDLINE search strategies, analysis of the quality of retrieved articles, a post-clerkship survey, and a post-clerkship test of student ability to calculate NNT all confirmed that intervention group students became more confident MEDLINE searchers who completed more searches, found higher quality EBM articles, were better able to calculate NNT, and learned more from other students. The online curriculum is now used by all students in the third-year family medicine clerkship program and may become the model for programs in other Boston University medical school departments.  J. Wood

Seeman, Elaine D. and Margaret O’Hara. “Customer relationship management in higher education: Using information systems to improve the student-school relationship.” Campus-Wide Information Systems 23, no. 1 (2006): 24-34.
Students today enjoy many options when considering college, from four-year colleges to community colleges to technical schools.  This, in turn, creates competition among institutions of higher education to attract and keep students.  Colleges now view students as customers, and in turn must provide good customer service.  Because of this need for customer satisfaction, some colleges are turning to Customer Relationship Management (CRM).  The authors describe CRM systems as “both a business strategy and a technology-software set.” With a CRM system, students can navigate the administrative-side of college, e.g., admissions, registration, and financial aid, while the institution meets the technological expectations of the students.  CRM allows students to interact with the institution on an “individualized, need-specific” manner.  The authors discuss the implementation of a CMS system in the North Carolina Community College System.  They provide challenges and successes of its execution.  T. C. Dean

Sherwill-Navarro P., and B. Layton. “Instruction 24/7: developing a Web-based tutorial for CINAHL (EBSCO).” Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries 3, no. 2 (2006): 37-46.
University of Florida (UF) Librarians along with the UF Center for Information Technology & Training (CITT) developed a tutorial to support patrons in their use of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) database on the EBSCO platform.  This tutorial was identified as one way to support the needs of distance learners as there was no existing CINAHL tutorial at that time. The tutorial would also serve to enhance instruction and engage users, meeting the changing needs of patrons. The authors describe the proposal development, project planning, components of the tutorial, as well as, testing and utilization of the online, web-based tutorial.  They discuss the process of developing the tutorial, transferring it to an online format, evaluating and making it available publicly. The project team (CITT and librarians) was able to create and produce a sophisticated, realistic, usable tutorial for CINAHL.  The project is described as having been an excellent learning experience, with positive impact on future education projects at the Health Science Center Libraries.  S. Cisse

Suttie, M. “The University of South Africa Library: from the Soweto Rebellion to the Beginning of the end of Apartheid, 1976–1990.” Mousaion 24, no. 2 (October 2006): 283-312.
This article examining the history of the University of South Africa (Unisa) Library is a sequel to the 1946 to 1976 history of the library’s formative years written by the same author. Its chronological examination of the library’s evolution and development relies heavily on primary source documents. It has a dual focus, recording both the daily operations of the library as well as the library’s significance and position in the larger political events of the day. The article reveals that library management generally mirrored the official position of the university in remaining “neutral” in matters of political unrest. However, the university’s status as a distance learning institution created an environment in which the library supported a racially diverse student body. By the mid 1980s demand for Unisa library’s services grew as students became increasingly dissatisfied with the Bantustan institutions and economic conditions made distance learning more attractive for students needing to work while pursuing their studies. The Unisa Library’s support of distance learning ultimately benefited a broad constituency ranging from apartheid officials to political dissidents who obtained materials even while imprisoned in places like the Robbin Island.  M. Sylvain

Torras, Maria-Carme, and Robert W. Vaagan. “Websites and Internationalization: A Survey of Norwegian Academic, Research and Special Libraries.” Libri: International Journal of Libraries and Information Services 56.1 (2006): 28-37.
An analysis of websites for Norway’s registered academic, research, and special libraries is presented.  294 websites were evaluated for the article. Half of these sites provided information in English. Not surprisingly, larger university libraries tended to provide information in English while smaller college libraries were less like to do so.  English information presented on websites tended to be about collections, online database access, and interlibrary loan/document delivery services. Only a small percent of libraries provided user information in English, a fact that the authors feel diminishes the quality of the sites and “shows a weak response on the part of the libraries to the increasing internationalization of Norwegian HE.” Websites from three Norwegian libraries are analyzed in greater detail to further illustrate the authors’ conclusions.  N. Marshall

Virkus, S. “Development of information-related competencies in European ODL institutions.”New Library World 107, no. 11/12 (November 2006): 467-480.
The author shares a portion of his research project regarding the development of information-related competencies (IRC) at six open and distance learning (ODL) universities in Europe. Using a multiple case study approach, administrators of varying levels at each of the institutions, librarians, and students were interviewed as part of the study. The administrators interviewed were familiar with IRC and indicated that these “competencies were highly valued” (472). While universities chosen for inclusion in this research project have established IRC programs and are considered leaders in this area, interviewees discussed challenges to integrating IRC into courses. Interviewees indicated that librarians have an important role in bringing IRC to the curriculum, but stated that they do not necessarily view librarians as having the skills needed to support students and IRC in a distance learning environment.  N. Marshall

Vrattos, Constance. “Case Study: Lesley University, Cambridge, MA.” Library Success: A Celebration of Library Innovation, Adaptation & Problem Solving (2006): 54-56.
Lesley University’s distance students make up 50% of the total student population.  It was critical that the university be able to offer an interactive information literacy tutorial suitable for their distance students as well as their on-campus students.  Modeled upon open source software developed by Western Michigan University (Searchpath) and the University of Texas (TILT) and grant funded, the university developed their own Searchpath version.  Since a central feature of their modular tutorial involves practicing within a live EBSCO database, EBSCO’s Customer Support Team offered assistance in the development of a basic password system allowing students to conduct the required live searches within the Searchpath tutorial.  J. Wilson

Walton, Graham.  “Learners’ Demands and Expectations for Space in a University Library:  Outcomes from a Survey at Loughborough University.”  New Review of Academic Librarianship 12, no. 2 (2006): 133-149.
Although Graham Walton’s study of Loughborough University’s library is admittedly narrow in scope (he does state that “as a single-site case study, [its] findings can only be related to Loughborough”), the over 400 responses to their survey that aims to “help…evaluate and improve the space in the Library” are enlightening and helpful to those seeking to evaluate their own library spaces.  The case study analyzed a two page survey which revealed how different library spaces are used, important factors identified by users when choosing a specific space, and the reasons why library space is used (or not used). Numerous graphs, charts, and illustration of data are included, as are conclusions and recommendations for future exploration.  R. Newhouse

Yang, Z. “Improving Turnaround Time for Document Delivery of Materials Owned But Not on the Shelf: A Case Study From an Academic Library.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 32, no. 2 (March 2006): 200-204.
This article describes the deliverEdocs service implemented at the Texas A&M University Libraries in June 2002.  It explains the how the system has been used in the past, as well as how the system can be improved in the future.  General usage statistics are provided, indicating that the service is very popular on campus.  The author also explains that 75% of all requests are finished within 72 hours, and her focus is on how to improve the 25% that take longer to complete.  S. Brown